Stress is a feeling of emotional or physical tension. It can come from any event or thought that makes you feel frustrated, angry, or nervous.
Stress is your body's reaction to a challenge or demand. In short bursts, stress can be positive, such as when it helps you avoid danger or meet a deadline. But when stress lasts for a long time .Your body reacts to stress by releasing hormones. These hormones make your brain more alert, cause your muscles to tense, and increase your pulse. In the short term, these reactions are good because they can help you handle the situation causing stress. This is your body's way of protecting itself.
When you have chronic stress, your body stays alert, even though there is no danger. Over time, this puts you at risk for health problems, including:
- High blood pressure.
- Heart disease.
- Depression or anxiety.
- Skin problems, such as acne or eczema.
- Menstrual problem
e, it may harm your health.
Specific Learning Disorders-Specific Learning Disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder that begins during school-age, although may not be recognized until adulthood. Learning disabilities refers to ongoing problems in one of three areas, reading, writing and math, which are foundational to one’s ability to learn.
An estimated 5 to 15 percent of school-age children struggle with a learning disability. An estimated 80 percent of those with learning disorders have reading disorder in particular (commonly referred to as dyslexia). One-third of people with learning disabilities are estimated to also have attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
Learning disorder can only be diagnosed after formal education starts. To be diagnosed with a specific learning disorder, a person must meet four criteria.
Have difficulties in at least one of the following areas for at least six months despite targeted help:
- Difficulty reading (e.g., inaccurate, slow and only with much effort).
- Difficulty understanding the meaning of what is read.
- Difficulty with spelling.
- Difficulty with written expression (e.g., problems with grammar, punctuation or organization.
- Difficulty understanding number concepts, number facts or calculation.
- Difficulty with mathematical reasoning (e.g., applying math concepts or solving math problems).
Have academic skills that are substantially below what is expected for the child’s age and cause problems in school, work or everyday activities.
The difficulties start during school-age even if in some people don’t experience significant problems until adulthood (when academic, work and day-to-day demands are greater).
Learning difficulties are not due to other conditions, such as intellectual disability, vision or hearing problems, a neurological condition (e.g., pediatric stroke), adverse conditions such as economic or environmental disadvantage, lack of instruction, or difficulties speaking/understanding the language.
A diagnosis is made through a combination of observation, interviews, family history and school reports. Neuropsychological testing may be used to help find the best way to help the individual with specific learning disorder.
Attention Deficit Hyper active Disorder-Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a brain disorder marked by an ongoing pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity that interferes with functioning or development
People with symptoms of inattention may often:
- Overlook or miss details, make careless mistakes in schoolwork, at work, or during other activities.
- Have problems sustaining attention in tasks or play, including conversations, lectures, or lengthy reading.
- Not seem to listen when spoken to directly.
- Not follow through on instructions and fail to finish schoolwork, chores, or duties in the workplace or start tasks but quickly lose focus and get easily sidetracked.
- Have problems organizing tasks and activities, such as what to do in sequence, keeping materials and belongings in order, having messy work and poor time management, and avoid or dislike tasks that require sustained mental effort, such as schoolwork or homework, or for teens and older adults, preparing reports, completing forms or reviewing lengthy papers.
- Lose things necessary for tasks or activities, such as school supplies, pencils, books, tools, wallets, keys, paperwork, eyeglasses, and cell phones.
- Be easily distracted by unrelated thoughts or stimuli.
- Be forgetful in daily activities, such as chores, errands, returning calls, and keeping appointments.
- ailing to meet deadlines.
People with symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity may often:.
- Fidget and squirm in their seats.
- Leave their seats in situations when staying seated is expected, such as in the classroom or in the office.
- Run or dash around or climb in situations where it is inappropriate or, in teens and adults, often feel restless.
- Be unable to play or engage in hobbies quietly.
- Be constantly in motion or “on the go,” or act as if “driven by a motor”.
- Talk nonstop.
- Blurt out an answer before a question has been completed, finish other people’s sentences, or speak without waiting for a turn in conversation.
- Have trouble waiting his or her turn.
- Interrupt or intrude on others, for example in conversations, games, or activities.
Life skills For adolescents-Life skills are abilities for adaptive and positive behaviour that enable us to deal effectively with the demands and challenges of everyday life in other words psychosocialcompetency They are a set of human skills acquired via teaching or direct experience that are used to handle problems and questions commonly encountered in daily humanlife. The subject varies greatly depending on social norms and community expectations but skills that functions for well-being and aid individuals to develop into active and productive members of their communities are considered as life skills.
Some of the important life skills identified through delphi method by WHO are:
- Decision making.
- Problem solving.
- Creative thinking/lateral thinking.
- Critical thinking/perspicacity.
- Effective communication.
- Interpersonal relationships.
- Self awareness/mindfulness.
- Coping with stress, trauma and loss.